Rule Number 35

Signal 10

DEFENCE OF GOAL

.1 The one defending player most directly under the goal, in order to defend the goal with the paddle is considered to be the goalkeeper at that time. The goalkeeper?s body must be facing into the playing area and attempting to maintain a position within one meter of the centre of the goal line. If two or more players are directly under the goal, the player most directly under the goal is considered the goalkeeper at that time.
.2 If the goalkeeper is not in possession of the ball and is moved or unbalanced by contact from an opposing player, then that player has committed an illegal tackle. Infringement incurs a sanction. Signals 10 and 15 apply.
.3 If an attacker moves the goalkeeper by pushing a defender into the goalkeeper, where none of the defenders have possession of the ball, the attacker shall be penalised. If the defender has an opportunity to avoid contact with the goalkeeper after being pushed, but does not, the attacker will not be penalised.
.4 If a defender pushes the attacker onto the goalkeeper, then the attacker should not be penalised. If the attacker has an opportunity to avoid contact with the goalkeeper after being pushed, but does not, the attacker will be penalised.
.5 If an attacker, in possession of the ball, whose original direction or speed would not have led to contact with the goalkeeper is pushed onto the goalkeeper by a defender, the attacker will not be penalised.
.6 A goalkeeper who is not in possession of the ball, but is attempting for the ball on the water, can be tackled like any other player. If the goalkeeper does not gain possession they will not regain goalkeeper status until the attacker has shot or passed the ball. After the attacker loses possession of the ball, the attacker must not actively impede the goalkeeper's attempt to regain or maintain their position.
.7 Within the six (6) meter area, an attacker must not actively prevent a defender from taking the position as goalkeeper. A defender will be allowed to push an attacker with the kayak, in order to take the position of goalkeeper without penalty, unless dangerous play is used.
.8 As soon as a team has control of the ball they can no longer be considered to be defending and thus cannot have a player defined as a goalkeeper.

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BALL OUT OF PLAY (Rule 21)

Rule  21

.1 Sideline and overhead obstacle: When any part of the ball touches the physical sideline or the vertical plane of the physical sideline, or touches any overhead obstacle, the team that was not the last to touch it with their paddle, kayak or person is awarded a sideline-throw.
.1.1. If the p

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