Rule Number 33

Signal 9 Signal 15

ILLEGAL HOLDING

.1 A player restricting the movement of an opposing player or gaining support or propulsion by placing their hand, arm, body or paddle on the kayak, or holding the opposing player or equipment.
.2 A player using for propulsion or support, or moving out of place, any playing area equipment e.g. boundary markers, goal supports, or any surrounding object.

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SANCTIONS (Rule 38)

Rule  38

The referee can impose any combination of the following sanctions for illegal-play depending on the severity and/or frequency of offences being penalised. The referee may send a player off the playing area for varying periods depending on the severity and/or frequency of offence being penalised.

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